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How to read your wellness lab results.

Wellness testing can screen for potential problems and red flags with regards to your health. Basic wellness tests analyse the function of your kidneys, liver, thyroid, heart, and more to highlight any concerns, and help you take control of your wellbeing. They can give you peace of mind that you are in good health, monitor chronic conditions so that they don’t get out of control, or detect disease early enabling you to start treatment as soon as possible.

Here at Private MD Labs, we want to make it easy and convenient for you to manage your healthcare. Wellness tests can be ordered online and carried out at a laboratory location listed on our website. Once you receive the results confidentially, you are free to discuss them with your physician to decide on an individualized plan for your health.

Blood test results can be confusing, even when they are explained by a clinician. Therefore, it helps to have a basic understanding of your wellness test results. This section explains what the most common wellness tests measure and the results that you may see.

What do my results mean?

Common abbreviations. 




Cells per cubic milliliter

fL (femtoliter)

Fraction of one-millionth of a liter


Grams per deciliter


International units per liter


Micrograms per decilitre


Milliequivalent per liter


milli-international units per milliliter


Milligrams per deciliter


Milligrans per liter




Millimiter per hour


Millimoles per liter


Nanograms per milliliter


Nanograms per decilitre

pg (picogram)

One-trillionth of a gram


Picograms per milliliter




Micrograms per deciliter

A few things to remember.

Each test has a reference range next to it which is the normal range for the results. Although most typical people will sit within this reference range, not everyone is 'typical'. You may still have problems if your test results fall within the normal range, or have no symptoms despite your results being abnormal. More investigations can be done if this happens.

It is rare however, false positives or false negatives can happen. This is usually down to a problem with the equipment, how the test is carried out, the timing, or the environment. You may also see that reference ranges vary in different laboratories. This is because of the different conditions, equipment, and population of where they are located. If you are unsure about your results, or have any questions, then ask your doctor to explain them to you.

Common wellness tests, results, and what they mean.

Test name


Reference range
(Normal range)

Cholesterol Testing

Cholesterol testing is also referred to as a lipid panel. This measures the different types of triglycerides and cholesterol (fats) in the blood. Common sub-tests within a lipid panel include testing total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol.

An explanation of the different cholesterol subtests and their reference ranges can be seen here.

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

A CBC can highlight issues such as infection, bleeding, certain diseases, or clotting problems.

There are several different sub-tests within a CBC and a full list of CBC tests and the reference ranges can be seen here.

Comprehensive metabolic profile

Also known as a chemistry panel, measures glucose levels, fluid and electrolyte balance, liver function, and kidney function.

For a full list of common comprehensive metabolic panel tests and the reference ranges click here to read how to interpret your lab results.

Diydrotestosterone (DHT)

Dihydrotestosterone testing might be used if you are receiving chemotherapy or 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy.

Males 30-85 ng/dL
Females 4-22 ng/dL

Children differs per age.

Hepatitis A

A blood test can be carried out to see if you are carrying the disease hepatitis A.

The test checks for antibodies which are produced by the body to fight the infection. If there are no antibodies present, the test is negative, and you do not have the disease.

IgM antibodies are present if you have an active or a recent infection.

IgG antibodies are present if you have been vaccinated, or have had an infection in the past.

Lactic acid

Lactic acid is usually measured if there is a concern that you may have lactic acidosis. If the results are abnormal, your body might not be getting enough oxygen which can lead to several problems with the heart, liver, or lungs.

4.5 to 19.8 mg/dL


A blood test checking the levels of enzymes amylase and lipase can be carried out as part of diagnosing pancreatitis. The blood test checks the amount of these enzymes in your blood stream.

Amylase 23-85 U/L
Lipase 0-160 U/L

During acute pancreatitis, these levels are often three times higher than normal.


High levels of phosphorus can indicate a problem with your kidneys or the parathyroid gland. Phosphorus helps support calcium and bone health.

3.4-4.5 mg/dL
(1.12-1.45 mmol/L)

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

PSA is a protein produced by the prostate gland and is measured to pick up any prostate problems. If it is high then it may be a sign of prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlargement of the prostate), or prostate cancer.

It is considered difficult to state a ‘normal reference range’ however, PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL or lower are usually considered normal.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid factor is created by the body when it begins to destroy healthy tissues.

Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide is a protein made by the body when inflammation is present.

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate is the speed which your red blood cells clump and fall together to the bottom of a glass tube within an hour.



C-Reactive Protein rises when inflammation is present.

Anti-nuclear antibody tests measure the presence of certain abnormal antibodies in your blood.

Normal rheumatoid factor results: 0-20 u/mL
High rheumatoid factor results: Over 20 u/mL

A result of 20 u/mL or less is normal.


Males under 50 years: 0-15 mm/h 
Men above 50 years: 0-20 mm/h

Females under 50 years: 0-20 mm/h
Females above 50 years: 0-30 mm/h 

Less than 10 mg/L


1 part antibodies to 40 parts solution is a negative test result.

Vitamin testing

A few of the common vitamin tests available:

Vitamin A
Vitamin B12



30-65 µg/dL
190-950 pg/mL


This is a urine test, not a blood test. It can help to identify urine infections or kidney problems. It can also help find other diseases like kidney disease, diabetes, or liver disease.

There are a number of elements observed when analysing a urine test. Due to the complex nature of this test, it is best to discuss your urinalysis test results with your doctor.

Being proactive with your wellbeing is a positive way to stay healthy. Wellness tests are available for purchase at Private MD Labs by clicking here or you can call us on (877) 283-7882 for further information. If you are unsure, worried, or have questions about your lab results then reach out to your doctor for support. Take control of your health by booking your wellness tests today.

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